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   2018| July-August  | Volume 29 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 23, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Treatment strategy for prostatic abscess: Eighteen cases' report and review of literature
Kazuhiko Oshinomi, Yuki Matsui, Tsutomu Unoki, Hideaki Shimoyama, Takehiko Nakasato, Jun Morita, Yoshiko Maeda, Michio Naoe, Kohzou Fuji, Yoshio Ogawa
July-August 2018, 29(4):206-209
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_59_18  
Objectives: Prostatic abscesses are rare. The incidence of prostatic abscess has declined markedly with the widespread use of antibiotics. Obtaining improvement is difficult in many cases of prostate abscess. Today, there are no guidelines or algorithms for the treatment of prostatic abscess. In this study, the shape and size of the abscess, in addition to patient background characteristics and the clinical course, were evaluated, and the treatment strategy for prostatic abscess was examined. Methods and Material: All patients with a diagnosis of prostatic abscess in Showa University Hospital between 2003 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Regarding the treatment options, the patients were divided into two groups, the conservative therapy group and the drainage group. In each group, background characteristics, culture reports, shape/size of abscess, and the presence of recurrence were evaluated. Results: All 18 patients with a diagnosis of prostatic abscess between 2003 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed; 13 patients improved with conservative treatment alone, but drainage was performed in five patients with poor response to antibiotic therapy. All five cases requiring transurethral drainage were multifocal abscesses. Conclusions: In making a decision about the approach for drainage, it is important to assess the size and shape of the abscess using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). If the abscess is the multifocal type, drainage should be considered. Based on the present study, whether the abscess is focal type or multifocal type, transurethral drainage should be considered if the abscess size exceeds 30 mm.
  15,672 669 3
Antilithiatic and hepatoprotective effects of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in rats
Seyyed Majid Bagheri, Maryam Yadegari, Maliheh Behpur, Davood Javidmehr
July-August 2018, 29(4):180-185
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_10_18  
Objective: In this study, antiurolithiasic and hepatoprotective effects of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin (asafoetida) were evaluated in Wistar rats. Methods: Negative control rats were provided with ethylene glycol (EG, 1%) in drinking water for 28 days. In treatment group, asafoetida was used simultaneously once daily for 28 days at the dose of 25 mg/kg. 8-h urine was collected from experimental animals at the end of the experiment. Urine level of creatinine, uric acid, urea, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, phosphorus, and serum level of transaminase (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated. In addition, histopathological changes in kidney and liver were stained in hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Asafoetida showed a significant effect on urine volume; water intake and urinary ionic parameters were altered by EG, which elevated the calcium and inorganic phosphate; and asafoetida significantly reduced the elevated levels of these ions. In addition, asafoetida significantly elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium. ALT, AST, LDH, and ALP were elevated by EG and asafoetida significantly reduced the elevated levels of these parameters. The histological findings also showed improvement after treatment with the asafoetida. Conclusion: The presented data indicate that administration of asafoetida prevented the growth of urinary stones and also have hepatoprotective effect in experimental EG nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats.
  3,180 324 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Detection of circulating tumor cells and the importance of their measurement in urological cancers
Michio Naoe, Mika Ohta, Yuki Hasebe, Yuki Matsui, Tsutomu Unoki, Hideaki Shimoyama, Takehiko Nakasato, Yoshio Ogawa, Mana Tsukada, Masataka Sunagawa, Hikaru Ishii, Masayuki Ishige, Hironori Osawa, Masaharu Matuzaki
July-August 2018, 29(4):176-179
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_42_18  
In recent years, various new drugs such as molecularly targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been developed. Liquid biopsy is becoming increasingly important as a guide for selecting these new drugs and determining their efficacy. In urological cancers, given the lack of serum markers for kidney cancer or urothelial cancers, the development of liquid biopsy is strongly desired. Liquid biopsy is less invasive than conventional tissue biopsy, enabling frequent biopsies, and is therefore considered effective for monitoring of the treatment course. Liquid biopsy is largely divided into three types: circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cell-free DNA, and exosomes, each of which has its own set of advantages and disadvantages with regard to the identification method and utility. In the present article, we focus on CTCs and discuss issues in their identification method as well as recent findings.
  2,619 426 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Association between vascular lesion and penile erection hardness in Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction
Keiichiro Hayashi, Haruaki Sasaki, Takashi Fukagai, Ippei Kurokawa, Hiroo Sugishita, Satoru Tanifuji, Motoki Yamagishi, Hideaki Shimoyama, Kenro Yamamoto, Michiya Ota, Kidai Hirayama, Atsushi Koshikiya, Yu Ogawa, Atsushi Igarashi, Masashi Morita, Kimiyasu Ishikawa, Jun Morita, Michio Naoe, Kohzo Fuji, Yoshio Ogawa
July-August 2018, 29(4):202-205
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_60_18  
Objective: Many erectile dysfunction (ED) cases are attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction and impaired blood flow due to arteriosclerotic changes. In this study, we examined the association among the erection hardness score (EHS), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and the presence of carotid artery plaques. Subjects and Methods: The study enrolled 67 patients who visited our hospital with the chief complaint of ED. Based on the history at the first visit, 28 of the 67 patients were categorized into the EHS 3–4 group and the remaining 39 into the EHS 0–2 group. The two groups were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The PWV points were significantly higher in the EHS 0–2 group than in the EHS 3–4 group (P = 0.047). In consideration for error in age, the modified points (PWV at the first visit – reference PWV by age) were significantly higher in the EHS 0–2 group than in the EHS 3–4 group (P = 0.026). This group also showed a higher detection rate of plaques by carotid ultrasound (66.7%). Conclusion: This study showed that patients with lower points of EHS had higher PWV and were more likely to have carotid artery plaques. While ED has occasionally been considered as an early risk marker for the onset of cardiovascular events; this study suggests that the hardness of the penis can be an easier-to-measure and more sensitive index.
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Robot-assisted retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy: Comparison of the 3-arm and 4-arm method
Chye Yang Lim, Kau Han Lee, Kuan-Hua Huang, Chien-Liang Liu, Allen Wen-Hsiang Chiu
July-August 2018, 29(4):193-197
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_28_18  
Objective: To compare the results from 3-arm and 4-arm robot assisted retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy (RARPN) in our initial case series in terms of oncologic and functional outcomes. Patients and Methods: 35 RARPN performed for malignant small renal masses in our hospital were categorized by the method used, 3-arm or 4-arm. Patient demographics (age, body mass index, tumor size, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score, tumor location), perioperative outcomes (operative time, warm ischemic time, estimated blood loss, length of stay, surgical margin status, complications, pathology) and functional outcomes (pre and post operative renal function change) were compared. Results: Initial 14 cases were performed in 3-arm method while latter 21 cases performed in 4-arm method. The tumor size was larger in the 4-arm group (3.5 cm vs 2.3 cm, P = 0.0261) but the warm ischemic time was significant shorter in 4-arm group (17 mins vs 23 mins, P = 0.0093). There were no other significant differences in remaining patient demographics, perioperative outcomes and functional outcomes. Conclusion: 4-arm RARPN is a safe, feasible technique in treating malignant small renal masses even the tumor is located at anterior portion as it provides good traction and exposure on surgical field, thus reducing the warm ischemic time.
  2,209 396 -
Indications for ureteropyeloscopy in the detection of upper urinary tract tumors
Jun Morita, Michio Naoe, Kohzo Fuji, Aya Hiramatsu, Tsutomu Unoki, Yuki Matsui, Hideaki Shimoyama, Takehiko Nakasato, Kazuhiko Oshinomi, Katsuyuki Saito, Yoshiko Maeda, Yoshio Ogawa
July-August 2018, 29(4):186-192
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_55_18  
Objectives: Ureteropyeloscopy has recently become an essential technique in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract tumors. However, no consensus has been reached regarding its indications. In addition, it is accompanied by several limitations and potential adverse events such as dissemination of malignant cells, adhesion of the ureter to the surrounding tissue, ureteral stricture, and ureteral perforation. In order to determine when and what circumstances dictate the need for ureteropyeloscopy to detect upper urinary tract tumors, we investigated the indications for ureteropyeloscopy based on voided urine cytology and preoperative radiographic findings. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 92 patients (62 men and 30 women) with a mean age of 66.4 years (range, 15–87 years) who had undergone diagnostic ureteropyeloscopy at our institution for the past 10 years. All patients were divided into six subgroups based on voided urine cytology and preoperative radiographic findings: subgroups A1 (n = 18) and A2 (n = 2), positive cytology (positive catheter urine cytology/negative catheter urine cytology) and positive images; Subgroup B (n = 19), positive cytology and negative images; Subgroups C1 (n = 30) and C2 (n = 10), negative cytology and positive images (upper urinary tract carcinomas/other abnormal findings); Subgroup D (n = 13), negative cytology and negative images. Ureteropyeloscopic findings including histology were compared with urine cytology and radiographic findings. Results: Voided urine cytology exhibited 60.4% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity, while preoperative radiographic findings exhibited 70.8% sensitivity and 63.6% specificity. Carcinomas were detected in all patients in Subgroups A1 and A2. Carcinomas were also detected in 9 patients (47.4%) in Subgroup B, of whom 5 showed a history of bladder tumors. The remaining 10 patients all had a history of bladder cancer. In Subgroups C1, C2, and D, carcinomas were detected in 14 patients (46.7%), 1 patient (10%), and 4 patients (30.8%), respectively. These results suggested that ureteropyeloscopy should be recommended for patients with negative cytology. Three complications (pyelonephritis, renal failure, and urinary retention) were noted, but none of these was severe and all were cured within a few days. No malignant findings were obtained in any of the patients during follow-up after negative findings in ureteropyeloscopy. Conclusions: Ureteropyeloscopy is essential for detecting upper urinary tract carcinoma in patients with negative voided urine cytology and positive radiographic findings. In addition, ureteropyeloscopy seems to be used commonly among patients with positive urine cytology and negative radiographic findings, or those with bleeding from the ureteral orifice. However, unless conservative nephron-sparing treatment is considered, ureteropyeloscopy may be unnecessary for patients with positive urine cytology and positive radiographic findings.
  2,162 277 -
Sling incision is not always sufficient: A case series
Philippe E Zimmern, Himanshu Aggarwal, Feras Alhalabi
July-August 2018, 29(4):198-201
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_21_18  
Objectives: To review various erroneous diagnoses assigned to symptomatic women after MUS incision, and report our outcomes after MUS excision in these women. Materials and Methods: Following IRB approval, a retrospective review of a prospectively collected MUS removal database was performed for non-neurogenic women who presented with continued LUTS despite a prior sling incision. Data reviewed by a neutral investigator not involved in patient care included demographics, presenting symptomatology, and outcomes after sub-urethral sling excision. Results: From 2006-2015, 18 patients were identified. Mean age was 55 + 12 years. Median time from initial placement to sling incision was 12 (range 1-108) months. Following sling incision, residual LUTS were treated with various therapies but without LUTS resolution. Indications for sling excision were obstruction (3), obstruction and pain (2), persistent vaginal pain/dyspareunia (9), recurrent vaginal exposure/dyspareunia (2), worsening urgency incontinence (1) and mixed urinary incontinence (1). Median time from sling incision to sling excision was 55 (range 5-146) months. Median follow-up after MUS excision was 12 months (range 6-45 months). Obstruction (5) and exposure (2) were all cured. Vaginal pain and dyspareunia improved in 8 of 11 women and UUI improved in one. Three women had persistent SUI and 1 developed recurrent SUI. Two women were treated satisfactorily with bulking agents, one with fascial sling and one with bulking agent followed by a fascial sling. Conclusions: Sling incision may not always resolve LUTS. In a subset of women, sling excision may eventually be needed, with variable outcomes.
  2,287 149 -
EDITORIAL
Diversity in our research
Yoshio Ogawa
July-August 2018, 29(4):175-175
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_98_18  
  1,585 244 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Letter to the editor: Renal vein aneurysm
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
July-August 2018, 29(4):210-210
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_85_18  
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Reply from authors (Letter to the Editor: Renal Vein Aneurysm)
Shih-Huan Su, Cheng-Keng Chuang
July-August 2018, 29(4):211-211
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_86_18  
  1,228 194 -
CME TEST
CME Test

July-August 2018, 29(4):212-213
DOI:10.4103/1879-5226.237366  
  1,182 128 -