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   2018| May-June  | Volume 29 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 27, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Urinary bladder thickness, tumor antigen, and lower urinary tract symptoms in a low Schistosoma haematobium-endemic rural community of Nigeria
Oyetunde Oyeyemi, Adekunle Adefalujo, Kolawole Ayeni, Williams Nabofa, Chinomso Nwozichi, Adeyemi Dada, Adebola Yusuf
May-June 2018, 29(3):151-155
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_3_17  
Objective: Bladder tumor antigen (BTA) is a common biomarker for urothelial carcinoma while bladder wall thickening (BWT) is a sign of urinary bladder irritation which suggests cystitis or early-stage bladder cancer pathology, most especially in the absence of bladder outlet obstruction. The aim of this study was to find the incidence of urinary bladder thickness and evaluate the relationship between BTA and BWT in a low schistosomiasis-endemic Nigerian village. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional. Freshly passed mid-day urine samples of 56 individuals were screened using chemical reagent strips and then diagnosed microscopically for Schistosoma haematobium. Subsequent follow-up involving ultrasound examination was carried out on distended bladder. The lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were also recorded. Urinary BTA analysis was carried out on the urine samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in the area was 3.6%. The overall prevalence of human BTA and BWT in the individuals was 44.6 and 35.7%, respectively. The LUTS were associated with BWT (P = 0.004; odds ratio = 6.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.8–20.3). BTA, BWT, and LUTS were not sex and age dependent (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no association between urinary BTA, BWT, and LUTS (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of BWT and LUTS (60.0%) was improved than when either was used to diagnose BTA. Conclusion: The high occurrence of BTA and BWT in the individuals suggests that they may be prone to urothelial carcinoma and urinary bladder irritation, respectively. The role of urogenital schistosomiasis in urinary BTA levels needs to be further explored.
  15,607 429 2
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Adenomatoid tumor of epididymis: A rare case report and literature review
Chan-Jung Liu, Ho-Siang Huang
May-June 2018, 29(3):168-171
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_44_18  
Adenomatoid tumors are rare benign neoplasms in the scrotum that can occur in both sexes. The majority of the patients was asymptomatic and was incidentally found with scrotal mass. It is difficult to distinguish adenomatoid tumors from malignant intratesticular solid tumors, which may result in unnecessary orchiectomy. The present report describes a 64-year-old male presented with right testicular enlargement for 6 months. Radiological images and intra-operative findings all showed cystic mass attached to right testis. Right orchiectomy was performed and final pathology was adenomatoid tumor. The present report also summarizes the morphological and immunohistochemical features of adenomatoid tumors and reviews the literature to share this rare intrascrotal benign tumors.
  9,118 488 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Outcomes of prostate atypical small acinar proliferation and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasm patients
Sheng-Yung Tung, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Chao-Yuan Huang, Hong-Chiang Chang, Kuo-How Huang, Shuo-Meng Wang, Huai-Ching Tai, Chung-Hsin Chen
May-June 2018, 29(3):161-165
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_52_18  
Objective: Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) are two pathological findings occasionally noted in prostate biopsies. Previous Western studies reported that they were associated with prostate cancer. However, none Taiwanese series report the subsequent cancer detection in ASAP and HGPIN patients. This study aimed to examine the results of repeated biopsies in the patients with ASAP and HGPIN. Materials and Methods: A total of 220 consecutive patients with ASAP and/or HGPIN at our institute between January 1990 and December 2010 were enrolled. Patient demographics and clinical information were extracted from the electronic database of our institute. Prostate biopsies were performed through transrectal ultrasound guidance. The patients who had concurrent prostate cancer (n = 51) and no repeated prostate biopsies (n = 103) were excluded from the study. Patients with biopsy pathologies reporting low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 2) were also excluded. The remaining 64 patients were available for the final analysis. Results: Nearly, 38, 24, and 2 patients were initially diagnosed as ASAP, HGPIN, and ASAP along with HGPIN, respectively. After 10 years of follow-up, 36.8% patients in ASAP group developed prostate cancer, while 16.7% in HGPIN group and 100% in ASAP + HGPIN group. Median time to developing prostate cancer were 20 months in ASAP group, 31 months in HGPIN group, and 48 months in ASAP + HGPIN group. There was no significant difference of prostate cancer development between ASAP and HGPIN group (P = 0.291). Only older age, classified by 65 years, was significantly associated with a higher detection rate of prostate cancer. Conclusion: Patients with the initial diagnosis of ASAP or PIN has a high risk of developing prostate cancer. Therefore, those patients should be well announced and followed regularly.
  5,151 390 1
Outcomes and complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: A single-center study involving 425 consecutive patients
Jhen-Hao Jhan, Shu-Pin Huang, Wei-Ming Li, Ching-Chia Li, Tsung-Yi Huang, Hung-Lung Ke, Chun-Nung Huang, Yii-Her Chou, Shen-Chen Wen
May-June 2018, 29(3):129-133
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_18_18  
Objective: The use of 10–12-core systemic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy protocols with extended-sampling has been an optimizing strategy for diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this study, we aim to examine the cancer detection rate (CDR) and the complications following prostate biopsy at our institution. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical data of patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between 2007 and 2013 at our institution. The pathological outcomes, major complications, and morbidities were recorded and assessed clinically. Results: During the study period, 425 patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were enrolled. The mean age of the participants was 67.9 years. Overall, 75 (17.6%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Cancer was detected in 0% (0/10), 7.0% (15/215), 16.5% (20/121), and 50.6% (40/79) of patients in the subgroups with patient prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <4 ng/ml, 4–10 ng/ml, 10–20 ng/ml, and >20 ng/ml, respectively. The optimal cutoff values of PSA density were 0.19, 0.29, and 0.78 in the subgroups with patient PSA 4–10 ng/ml, 10–20 ng/ml, and >20 ng/ml. In total, 11 patients had afebrile urinary tract infections (UTI), 9 patients had febrile UTI, and another 2 patients had septic shock after biopsy. The overall incidence of infectious complications was 5.17% (22/425). Other complications were infrequent, consisting only of urinary retention in three patients, hematospermia in two patients, and acute hemorrhagic cerebellar infarction in 1 patient. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the CDR, the incidence, and type of complications following TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Further prospective studies are required to determine methods for reducing complications from prostate biopsy.
  4,964 456 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Practical updates in medical therapy for advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Ning Yi Yap, Wan Thien Khoo, Komathi Perumal, Kar Aik Ng, Retnagowri Rajandram, Adlinda Alip, Marniza Saad, Teng Aik Ong
May-June 2018, 29(3):120-128
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_25_18  
The evolution of therapy for advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progressed over the past decade from using cytokine immunotherapy to targeted therapy which predominantly inhibits angiogenesis via the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Currently, there are several approved agents in the first-line (e.g. sunitinib, pazopanib, ipilimumab/nivolumab, bevacizumab/IFN-α combination and temsirolimus) and second-line settings (e.g. everolimus, axitinib, sorafenib, cabozantinib, nivolumab and lenvatinib/everolimus combination). These agents are used in sequence upon progression due to drug resistance or intolerable toxicities. The European Association of Urology (EAU), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend the use of these agents based on evidence from clinical trials and expert committee consensus. The recent approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors due to the encouraging results from clinical trials has expanded the treatment options for patients with advanced or metastatic RCC. This will hopefully improve the treatment outcomes, reduce toxicities and ameliorate quality of life for these patients.
  4,615 588 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of high-volume disease in Asian population with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer
Yung-Ting Cheng, Jian-Hua Hong, Yu-Chuang Lu, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Chao-Yuan Huang, Kuo-How Huang, Shih Ping Liu, Chung-Hsin Chen
May-June 2018, 29(3):136-144
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_11_18  
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical oncological outcomes and prognostic factors of high-volume disease (HVD) in the Asian population with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 503 patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. Patients were classified as HVD if visceral metastases were present and/or ≥4 bone lesions with ≥1 lesion beyond the vertebral bodies and pelvis. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival were investigated based on the disease burden. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the prognostic factors. Results: About 50.7% patients were classified as low-volume disease (LVD) and 49.3% were HVD at diagnosis. The medians of OS and cancer-specific survival were 64 and 116 months, respectively, for patients with LVD and 26 and 46 months, respectively, for men with HVD (both P < 0.001). Among patients with HVD, 76.6% had both high-volume bone disease (HBD) (≥4 bone metastases) and appendicular bone involvement. There was no significant difference in both OS and cancer-specific survival between patients with visceral metastases and those with HBD combined with appendicular bone involvement. In the multivariable analysis, presence of Gleason score ≥8, HBD, or HVD may predict poorer OS and cancer-specific survival outcomes (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Asian patients with high-volume metastatic prostate cancer had a larger proportion of HBD with appendicular bone involvement, who had a comparably poor prognosis to those with visceral metastases. Patients with HBD or HVD had reduced survival outcomes.
  4,264 432 2
Urolithiasis is associated with the increased risk for osteoporosis: A nationwide 9-year follow-up study
Yen-Man Lu, Tsu-Ming Chien, Ching-Chia Li, Yii-Her Chou, Wen-Jeng Wu, Chun-Nung Huang
May-June 2018, 29(3):145-150
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_20_17  
Objective: We aimed to determine whether urolithiasis is a warning sign indicating long-term osteoporosis. Controls were matched for age, sex, and other comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID2000) of Taiwan, Republic of China, compiled by the NHI from 1996 to 2013. We further evaluated potential risk factors stratified by different comorbidities. Results: After performing the propensity score matching (urolithiasis: control; ratio, 1:3), we included a total of 104,900 patients, including 26,225 patients with urolithiasis and 78,675 control patients. There was a significant difference between the incidence of osteoporosis between the urolithiasis and control groups (adjusted hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–1.27, P < 0.001). Interestingly, the impact of urolithiasis on osteoporosis was more prominent in the younger patient population (age < 40 years, adjusted hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.12–1.75, P = 0.003; 40–59 years, adjusted hazard ratio 1.3, 95% CI: 1.20–1.40, P < 0.001), than in the older patient population (age >60 years, adjusted hazard ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05–1.21, P = 0.001; P = 0.015 for interaction). We also observed that urolithiasis had an impact on hypertension-free patients (hypertension free, adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI: 1.20–1.36, P < 0.001; hypertension, adjusted hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03–1.22, P = 0.006, P = 0.020 for interaction). Conclusion: In conclusion, on the basis of our results, an association exists between urolithiasis patients and subsequent osteoporosis diagnosis. Although the clinical mechanisms are not fully understood, patients who had urolithiasis history may need regular follow-up of bone marrow density.
  3,227 281 3
Augmented reality-assisted single-incision laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Comparison with pure single incision laparoscopic technique
Mao-Sheng Lin, Jungle Chi-Hsiang Wu, Hurng-Sheng Wu, Jack Kai-Che Liu
May-June 2018, 29(3):156-160
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_3_18  
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate augmented reality-assisted single-incision laparoscopic adrenalectomy (AR-SILA) and compare with pure SILA. Materials and Methods: Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 19 patients had received SILA. Eight cases were AR-SILA and the others were pure SILA. Results: Eight AR-SILA procedures and 11 SILA were successfully completed. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index, and tumor size. Operative times were shorter in the AR-SILA group (102.5 ± 12.8 vs. 150.9 ± 46.3, P = 0.005). The mean blood loss in the AR-SILA group was slightly less than that in the SILA group (60.0 ± 25.6 vs. 109.1 ± 80.1, P = 0.129). There was neither postoperative mortality nor morbidity at the time of discharge and during follow-up. Conclusion: AR-SILA provides important intraoperative information for surgeons to recognize where the pathological lesions and vessels are located beyond the surgeon's direct vision. It made SILA safer and easier.
  3,193 284 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Bilateral complete ureteral duplication with bilateral ureteral calculi
Sunil S Gogate, Bhagyashri S Gogate
May-June 2018, 29(3):166-167
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_1_17  
A 35-year-old female came with right renal colic. Ultrasonography showed left hydroureteronephrosis. Intravenous urography showed bilateral complete duplication with the right upper moiety ureteric calculus and left lower moiety ureteric calculus. Both were treated with rigid ureterorenoscopy. This is first such presentation in the world. Only two cases of complete duplication with urolithiasis, but different presentation are reported so far.
  2,508 157 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Editorial comment: Outcomes and complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: A single-center study involving 425 consecutive patients
Chih-Shou Chen
May-June 2018, 29(3):134-135
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_88_18  
  2,152 278 -
EDITORIAL
Management of metastasis renal cell carcinoma: Where are we heading?
See-Tong Pang
May-June 2018, 29(3):119-119
DOI:10.4103/UROS.UROS_90_18  
  2,114 222 -
CME TEST
Cme test

May-June 2018, 29(3):172-173
DOI:10.4103/1879-5226.235386  
  1,521 138 -