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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 111-116

Feasibility and safety of retrograde radical cystectomy under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia in high-risk and elderly patients. A single surgeon experience


1 Department of Urology, SKIMS, Srinagar, JK, India
2 Department of Anaesthesiology, SKIMS, Srinagar, JK, India

Correspondence Address:
Abdul Rouf Khawaja
Department of Urology, SKIMS, Soura Srinagar Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/UROS.UROS_156_20

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Purpose: The purpose of the study is to study feasibility and safety of retrograde radical cystectomy (RC) under regional anesthesia (RA) in high-risk and elderly patients of muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational study, conducted in the department of urology, SKIMS, Kashmir, India, from 2012 to 2020. All patients underwent retrograde RC under RA. Results: Thirty-seven patients were operated with median follow-up period of 32 months and included 30 male and 7 female patients with median age of 74.5 years (70–83 years). The American Society of Anesthesiologists score was II in 20 patients, III in 15 patients, and IV in 2 patients. All the patients included in study had significant comorbidities. All patients were anemic and required preoperative blood transfusions for optimization. Total blood loss ranged from 200 to 900 ml (mean: 400 ml). Bilateral internal iliac artery was ligated preemptively in all patients. Total transfusion required ranged from one to six units (mean: 2 units). Number of lymph nodes removed ranged from 15 to 35 (mean: 20). Total peritoneal exposure time ranged from 0 to 70 min (mean: 50 min). None of the patient needed intensive care postoperatively. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) recovery time ranged from 1 to 4 days (mean of 1.5 days). Total hospital stay ranged from 7 to 15 days (mean: 9 days). On follow-up, one patient had stent (feeding tube) fracture, and the residual fragment was managed by antegrade approach. One patient had ureteroileal anastomotic stricture which was managed by refashioning of the anastomosis (Bricker to Wallace). One patient had stomal stenosis with features of recurrent urinary tract infections and underwent refashioning of stoma with stabilization of renal function. Conclusion: To circumvent the need of postoperative ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and prolonged hospital stay, we advocate retrograde extraperitoneal RC under combined RA (CRA) as preferred approach of surgical intervention in high-risk and elderly patients with little abdominal organ disturbance and early bowel recovery.


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