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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Dysregulated microRNAs in BC and their roles in autophagy regulation. Various microRNAs are up-regulated (red) or down-regulated (green) in bladder cancer. These microRNAs have been reported to regulate autophagy process.(a) Autophagy induction which including ULK complex and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, which could be regulated by miR-20a, miR-25, miR-106a/b, miR-26, miR-18a, miR-99a and miR-15a/16. (b) Vesicle nucleation mainly involves the Beclin-1 complex, ATG2-18 complex, and ATG9. Beclin-1 itself is regulated by miR-30a and miR-17. The other regulators of this step are miR-152 and miR-199a (ATG14); miR-34a (ATG9); miR-130a (ATG2-18).(c) Vesicle elongation is controlled by LC3 and ATG12-5-16 processing systems. Several microRNAs have been reported to participate in regulation of this process. For example, miR-106b, miR-23b, miR-30a (ATG12-5-16 complex); miR-101 (ATG4); miR-204 (LC3-I); miR-423 and miR-199a (ATG3-7).(d) Fusion is a poorly defined event in mammalian cells in which some molecules participate in this process. microRNAs identified to regulate this step containing miR-101 (RAB5) and miR-194 (LAMP2). Finally, autolysosome degradation and recycling result in vesicle breakdown and cargo degradation. The beclin-1-Vps34 complex is implicated in this step, and this complex is targeted by miR-17, miR-183, miR-30a and miR-125b

Figure 2: Dysregulated microRNAs in BC and their roles in autophagy regulation. Various microRNAs are up-regulated (red) or down-regulated (green) in bladder cancer. These microRNAs have been reported to regulate autophagy process.(a) Autophagy induction which including ULK complex and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, which could be regulated by miR-20a, miR-25, miR-106a/b, miR-26, miR-18a, miR-99a and miR-15a/16. (b) Vesicle nucleation mainly involves the Beclin-1 complex, ATG2-18 complex, and ATG9. Beclin-1 itself is regulated by miR-30a and miR-17. The other regulators of this step are miR-152 and miR-199a (ATG14); miR-34a (ATG9); miR-130a (ATG2-18).(c) Vesicle elongation is controlled by LC3 and ATG12-5-16 processing systems. Several microRNAs have been reported to participate in regulation of this process. For example, miR-106b, miR-23b, miR-30a (ATG12-5-16 complex); miR-101 (ATG4); miR-204 (LC3-I); miR-423 and miR-199a (ATG3-7).(d) Fusion is a poorly defined event in mammalian cells in which some molecules participate in this process. microRNAs identified to regulate this step containing miR-101 (RAB5) and miR-194 (LAMP2). Finally, autolysosome degradation and recycling result in vesicle breakdown and cargo degradation. The beclin-1-Vps34 complex is implicated in this step, and this complex is targeted by miR-17, miR-183, miR-30a and miR-125b