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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 147-155

Smoking history, smoking intensity, and type of cigarette as risk factors of bladder cancer: A literature review


1 Department of Urology, Hasan Sadikin Academic Medical Center, Universitas Padjajaran Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
2 Department of Anatomy Pathology, Hasan Sadikin Academic Medical Center, Universitas Padjajaran Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
3 Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran - Hasan Sadikin Academic Medical Center, Bandung, Indonesia

Correspondence Address:
Sawkar Vijay Pramod
Department of Urology, Hasan Sadikin Academic Medical Center, Jl. Pasteur 38, Bandung 40161
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/UROS.UROS_6_20

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Smoking is a major risk factor that plays a role in the incidence of bladder cancer. Carcinogens from cigarettes are excreted through the urine, so direct contact with the urinary tract occurs and increases the risk of malignancy. Literature is obtained from the search results of PubMed, Medscape, and Science Direct electronic databases with some keywords used. Starting in 2009, 88 literature results were collected through the electronic databases of PubMed, Medscape, and Science Direct. After applying the exclusion criteria, 12 articles are included in this literature review with 536,989 bladder cancer patients and 52,753 controls in total. High clove cigarette smoking intensity (>40 cigarettes/day) is a risk of causing urothelial carcinoma bladder cancer. Clove cigarettes pose the highest risk of bladder cancer. Compared to clove cigarette, cigars, and tobacco pipes have relatively lower risk of causing bladder cancer. Meanwhile, other types of cigarettes, such as shisha and electronic cigarettes, do not eliminate the risk of bladder cancer. Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for bladder cancer. The current smoking history was associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer compared to the former history of smoking. Different types of smoking have different risks of bladder cancer.


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