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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 4-7

Rational combination with an immunotherapy backbone in genitourinary cancers


1 Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital; Graduate Institutes of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine; National Taiwan University Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan
2 Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital; Graduate Institutes of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chia-Chi Lin
Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100
Taiwan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/UROS.UROS_11_19

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Immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blockade treatment, has changed the landscape of anticancer therapy. In genitourinary (GU) cancer, the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade alone has resulted in improved outcomes compared with conventional therapies, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapy in advanced urothelial carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), respectively. To improve the efficacy of the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, a combination of this blockade with other therapeutic modalities has been explored in the earnest. In a recent study, ipilimumab, an anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody, combined with nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody as the first-line therapy, has demonstrated superior efficacy to sunitinib in advanced RCC patients with International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium intermediate and poor risk. This mini-review article focuses on the rational combination with the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in GU cancers.


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