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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 53-57

Bladder calculi in Taiwan


Department of Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Wen-Chi Chen
Department of Urology, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2 Yuh-Der Road, North District, Taichung
Taiwan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/UROS.UROS_142_18

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In Taiwan, the reported admission rate for bladder calculi was 7.5% of all patients with urolithiasis. The admission rate for bladder calculi was 12.9/100,000 in 2010, with elderly males constituting 91.8% of these patients. Pediatric bladder calculi are rare in Taiwan with a reported prevalence of only 0.047%. There are four possible causes of secondary bladder calculi, namely bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), neurogenic bladder, intravesical foreign bodies, and renal transplant. The biggest reported bladder stone in Taiwan was approximately 7 cm × 4.8 cm in size, with a weight of 320 g. Several pathogenic factors contribute to the formation of bladder calculi, including intravesical foreign bodies, BOO, neurogenic bladder, and metabolic abnormalities. Contemporary treatment of bladder calculi includes endoscopic cystolithotripsy or cystolitholapaxy with laser or LithoClast lithotripters. Some studies from Taiwan have reported that bladder calculi may increase the risk of cancer. An association between bladder calculi and chronic kidney disease has been reported in serial reports. In conclusion, most bladder calculi can be treated by endoscopic surgery and attention to associated comorbidities is warranted.


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