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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 151-155

Urinary bladder thickness, tumor antigen, and lower urinary tract symptoms in a low Schistosoma haematobium-endemic rural community of Nigeria


1 Department of Basic Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
3 Department of Microbiology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
4 Department of Physiology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
5 Department of Adult Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
6 Department of Chemical Pathology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Oyetunde Oyeyemi
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/UROS.UROS_3_17

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Objective: Bladder tumor antigen (BTA) is a common biomarker for urothelial carcinoma while bladder wall thickening (BWT) is a sign of urinary bladder irritation which suggests cystitis or early-stage bladder cancer pathology, most especially in the absence of bladder outlet obstruction. The aim of this study was to find the incidence of urinary bladder thickness and evaluate the relationship between BTA and BWT in a low schistosomiasis-endemic Nigerian village. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional. Freshly passed mid-day urine samples of 56 individuals were screened using chemical reagent strips and then diagnosed microscopically for Schistosoma haematobium. Subsequent follow-up involving ultrasound examination was carried out on distended bladder. The lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were also recorded. Urinary BTA analysis was carried out on the urine samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in the area was 3.6%. The overall prevalence of human BTA and BWT in the individuals was 44.6 and 35.7%, respectively. The LUTS were associated with BWT (P = 0.004; odds ratio = 6.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.8–20.3). BTA, BWT, and LUTS were not sex and age dependent (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no association between urinary BTA, BWT, and LUTS (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of BWT and LUTS (60.0%) was improved than when either was used to diagnose BTA. Conclusion: The high occurrence of BTA and BWT in the individuals suggests that they may be prone to urothelial carcinoma and urinary bladder irritation, respectively. The role of urogenital schistosomiasis in urinary BTA levels needs to be further explored.


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